GENERO #23, 2019
ISSN: 1451-2203 (Print)
ISSN: 2620-181X (Online)
Publisher: Center for Gender and Politics, Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Belgrade
Co-publisher: Center for Women's Studies, Belgrade
Imprint: Download as pdf
Table of Contents
TOPIC OF THE ISSUE: THE EDUCATION / MIGRATION NEXUS THROUGH A FEMINIST LENS
Summary / Abstract: This paper explores the contributions offered by feminist theories (feminist constructionism, feminist anti-essentialist critiques, the concept of the feminisation of migration, and intersectional analysis) to analytical inquiries into the migration-education nexus. The paper starts with an extended introduction that situates education concerning migration phenomena as well as the broader contexts of nation building, colonial expansion, and uneven regional development. Its engagement with feminist theories is oriented towards generating a view on education that enables regimes of historical visibility and analytical orientations to complicate the understanding of western and global North countries as spaces of opportunity, fairness, and equal treatment where hard work and proper educational credentials guarantee upward socioeconomic mobility to all ‘good’ migrants. The first part of the paper situates the analytics of feminist constructionism in relation to state interventions at the intersection of migration-education regimes by exploring the confluences between biological and cultural determinism in shaping life prospects of migrants through gendering and racialising the socio-economic roles and hierarchies of human value and potential of present-day globalised order. Starting with the concept of feminisation of migration and concluding with the analytics of intersectionality, the second part of the paper demonstrates how blind spots of research and policies left by research and policy in relation to gendering and racialising processes embedded in historical and contemporary systems of power lead to outcomes that fail to deliver visions for educational equality for migrant learners.
Keywords: migrant learners, migrant education, gender, racialisation, intersectionality, feminist constructionism, feminisation of migration, deskilling, educational policy, educational equality
Page Range: 1-39
Summary / Abstract: Although the whole refugee population is heavily affected by precarious life, uncertainty, and unsafety, women are particularly vulnerable in the situations of exile. Throughout their whole migration route – from a war or disaster inflicted country of origin, over their migration journey, to their destination countries – they are at a disproportionately higher risk of harm, especially gender-based violence. This includes refugee camps as well, where harassments, rape, abuses, and exploitation are common in refugees’ everyday life. This paper focuses on one of those camps – Nakivale refugee settlement in Uganda. The paper uses some theoretical tools of feminist geography to look at the gendered experience of life in a refugee camp, and see how gender shapes women’s experiences of space, movement, changing surroundings and cultures, family relations, etc. in it. Moreover, through the voices of refugee women, it uncovers how gender, intertwined with other social locations, marginalize refugee women even further, alarmingly jeopardizing their safety and wellbeing in the camp.
Keywords: refugee women, refugee camp, gender-based violence, Uganda, intersectionality, feminist geography
Page Range: 41-76
Summary / Abstract: After crossing the borders of nations, migrants and refugees often encounter racialized and gendered institutional and social boundaries in the places where they seek refuge. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Brazil on displaced Muslim, Palestinian Iraqi War refugees, this article examines the education-migration link in the refugee selection process and formal and informal institutions of education. It considers how these structures produce and reproduce otherness and the dynamic methods refugees utilize to combat and transcend limitations imposed on them. It develops the concept of gendered pedagogies of migrant (dis)integration to analyze the gendered racialization processes that influence belonging.
Keywords: gendered pedagogies of migrant (dis)integration, borders, gender, culture, orientalism
Page Range: 77-100
Summary / Abstract: Feminist epistemologies have promoted other worlds as not only thinkable and realizable but already materialized – at the fringes or margins or flip sides of dominating views: in new materialist accounts these practices of world making are called “other worldings”. To think the world, and hence truth and reality as plural and in process, as collaborative worldly endeavours and related to multiple entangled – or situated – speaking subjects, has been a crucial achievement of feminist epistemology until today. On this basis, the paper brings together ethical approaches from feminist new materialism with decolonial contestations of Enlightenment accounts on autonomous subjectivity towards a radical re-valuation of interrelating with others and enactments of the “methodology of the oppressed”.
The city, in our view, is not only the place of neo-liberal divisions and high-tech competitions but also best suited for realizing encounter zones and creating space for transversal queer-feminist movements. maiz – Autonomous Centre by and for Migrant Women* in the city of Linz in Austria serves as an example for such a realization of theoretical and practical worlding, as we aim to show in this paper, especially with the foundation of the “University of Ignoramuses” and migrazine.at. We argue that not only this encounter zone seems promising but also its realization in the social, material and virtual space were the pleasure of networking and lived relations of solidarity, learning, un-learning and transformation can be discovered and trained with experts in the field.
On this way, the paper brings together an onto-ethico-epistemological approach with an activist approach for transformation of reality.
Keywords: transversal queer-feminist movement, onto-ethico-epistemology, counter-hegemonic knowledge, methodology of the oppressed, decolonial feminism, dissident feminisms, transformation of reality, European values, activism, ontological relationality
Page Range: 101-123
STUDIES AND ARTICLES
Summary / Abstract: News about possible decriminalization of surrogate motherhood in Serbia initiated controversial public discussions. The article presents three dominant discourses that have been created over the surrogacy: “nationalistic” discourse, which is dominant in the Serbian population politics; “human rights” discourse that interprets surrogacy in line with Article 63 of the Serbian Constitution and right to parenthood; and one of the radical feminist discourse, which understands surrogacy as one of the most extreme forms of violence against women. Though, the article argues that decriminalization of surrogate motherhood should be seen as an opportunity to challenge the conservative, right-wing narrative about a traditional, financially self-sustainable family which, in neoliberal system, provides care for its members, and releases the state of its responsibility to finance and implements social welfare policies.
Keywords: surrogate motherhood, population policies, family politics, Serbia
Page Range: 127-149
Summary / Abstract: Collected stories about women who changed society (What a Woman, Stories of Defiant Serbs, Women of BiH, Stories of Fearless Croatian Women) can be interpreted as parts of a common, but not uniform literary and publishing phenomenon, since they share similar features in terms of genre and rhetoric, as well as the fact that they have been published at approximately the same time. Bearing in mind that this genre is closely related to popular youth culture forms and discourses, the aim of this paper is twofold. First, to examine which discursive strategies enable the transmission of feminist-oriented cultural memory to popular culture. In addition, since the practice and analysis of cultural memory may constitute a form of activism in itself (Hirsch & Smith 2002), the aim of this paper is also to analyze the ways in which these collected stories interpret women’s struggle in the past, that is, what kind of feminism for 21st century they offer.
Keywords: cultural memory, feminism, genre, gender, popular culture, blog, women’s history
Page Range: 151-173
Summary / Abstract: The text problematizes the potential effects that video game discourse could have on players. It uses a dynamic understanding of the term identity for a better understanding of the gaming audience. Existing studies on the notion that video games cause violence in players are also examined through the text. Then, the focus shifts to the political messages sent by each game, whether they are consciously comprehended by authors or they are merely a product of unconscious action of existing ideologies. Finally, the text highlights different pieces of research on gender representation and its impact on the confirmation of gender stereotypes and the shaping of player attitudes. Furthermore, it shows positive changes in the production of games, such as the creation of strong female characters. To identify all the mechanisms shown and perpetuated in games, complex phenomena like that should be illuminated from different viewpoints. It is important, therefore, to emphasize that this paper shows only one of many possible approaches.
Keywords: video games, reception, violence, gender, sexuality
Page Range: 175-195
Summary / Abstract: This paper examines feminist engagement within academia and its relationship with feminist movements and community. After a brief review of history of women’s/gender studies in the West, the author turns to domestic context in order to propose some answers to the following questions – what is the relationship between feminist theory and practice; did feminists in academia turn from politics to mere theory; is academic knowledge relevant to feminist movement and broader community and in what sense? As a place of encounter of theory and activism, we consider the essay collection The Feminist Press in Serbia: Theory, Activism and Art Practices in the 1990s and 2000s. The topics explored in this essay collection are feminist press in Serbia in the 1990s and 2000s, and the activities of the related feminists. The aim of the paper is to problematize the complex relationship between feminist theory and practice and to show that the feminism at universities in Serbia, is inherently activist and relevant to the society as a whole.
Keywords: feminist academic journals, feminist theory, feminist activism, periodical studies, women’s studies, gender studies
Page Range: 197-216
Summary / Abstract: This essay analyzes lives and works of two distinguished female mathematicians, Sofya Kovalevskaya, who lived in the second half of the 19th century, and Emmy Noether, who was the most active in the first decades of the 20th century. The essay traces the problems faced by both female mathematicians regarding the (im)possibilities for higher education for women, earning the PhD title, and subsequently gaining the position at the universities. The author analyzes the accomplishments of both female mathematicians to the field of mathematics (analysis, partial differential equations, algebra), having in mind that women have been largely made invisible and denied the most important awards in that field. Finally, this essay indicates the importance of remembering of women pioneers in the field of various scientific research and disciplines, not only because they succeeded with more or less sacrifice to become visible and recognized as accomplished scientists, but also because of immense efforts they made to open the space of science for the work of other female scientists and new generations of women in sciences.
Keywords: intellectual biography, women, history of mathematics, female mathematicians, analysis, partial differential equation, algebra, discrimination, Sofya Kovalevskaya, Emmy Noether
Page Range: 217-236