Summary / Abstract: Today the content and manner of expression of sexism have changed and former forms of gender discrimination have become socially unacceptable, which does not mean that sexism has disappeared. Subtle forms of sexism are not recognized as such and consequently are not seen as harmful or problematic. It is still just the traditional, openly hostile sexism that is recognized, condemned and criticized. This paper aims to unite important social, psychological and scientific contributions to recognizing and defining those forms of sexism that are not recognized as such. Modern sexism, neosexism and benevolent sexism are very present nowadays and these types of sexism present a great obstacle to improving gender equality. Special attention in this paper will be given to benevolent sexism which, with the help of its positive tone, reconfirms traditional gender roles. We will present research that shows how benevolent sexism impacts gender equality negatively, as well as research that shows the reasons why women accept this type of sexism.
Feminist Developmental Economics: Myth or Alternative
Tatjana Đurić Kuzmanović
Summary / Abstract: This paper explains the role and importance of gender and gender regimes in the analysis of the ruling relations in the private and public spheres from the perspective of feminist development economics. The focus is on the traditions of heterodox economics schools, following three key trends related to: methodology and indicators in feminist economic analysis; care economics, and gender analysis of the budget/gender budgeting. Facts, causes and consequences of gender inequality are situated within the three basic, interrelated economic domains that are subject to variety of relations between women and men: in care economy (grounded in the assumption of exchange of gifts), at the market (with the prevailing terms of trade) and the State (predominantly governed by redistribution). The paper analyzes the four key components in order to explain the development of feminist economic analysis: 1) it maps and defines the basic concepts and methodologies of gender and gender sensitive data, 2) discusses the key models of acquisition and distribution of resources within the household, 3) marks key concepts and dilemmas of care economics, and 4) presents the basis of gender sensitive economic policy and one of its instruments, gender budgeting. Defining gender-sensitive targets by policy makers and development gender policies, mechanisms and indicators are essential steps in creating and implementing a different vision: more equitable, humane, and sustainable economic and social development of national and world economy, and society in which women and men are strategic partners.
Keywords: feminist developmental economics, models of allocation, resources in household, gender sensitive economic policy, gender sensitive budgeting
The Problem of Poverty and Social Exclusion of Women Who Have Experienced Violence in Partner Relationship
Summary / Abstract: Women exposed to violence in intimate partner relationships, especially when they decide to break out of them, become more dependent on social and financial assistance. Loss of financial security, grappling with housing issues, lack of accessible childcare services and their inflexible organization of work, hamper the prospects of finding employment and working in shifts, at night, overtime or at week-end. Job insecurity or unemployment, doing traditionally female and low paid jobs, working part-time, coupled with low education levels or possible health problems are merely some of the risk factors of poverty and social exclusion, which set into motion a series of complex interrelationships. Analyses confirm that the economic crisis and cuts in public spending in European countries have a disproportionate impact on women. In addition to a worsening position in the labor market, they are engaged in mitigating the negative consequences of the (re) privatization of caregiving, which entails the return to traditional gender roles. The crisis is a pretext for the drastic shrinking of financial social services, posing a serious threat to a wide range of women’s rights. The analysis of the situation in Serbia reveals the same trends. The legislative and strategic regulations insufficiently recognize women and marginalized groups of women as holders of rights; moreover, there is no coherent framework for their implementation and monitoring. A comprehensive understanding of the everyday life hardships of single parent women exposed to violence is imperative. Integrating and interconnecting the services of different sectors (social protection, education, employment, housing, health) should provide a response to the complex needs of the poor and socially excluded women, and of women victims of violence. The question remains whether these „social remedies” are conducive to solutions, fundamental changes in the socio-economic system, or (merely) to alleviating the burden of poverty.
Keywords: women, victims of violence, poverty, social exclusion, social services, social change
Summary / Abstract: The purpose of this paper on the phenomenon of reproductive behavior is to point out the complexity of the topic and the importance of multidisciplinary approach to it and towards creating policies within this domain. We analyze this subject by leaning on the systemic approach in science, emphasizing wholeness and interconnectedness between different levels of system/context (micro, meso and macro levels) within the framework of a given life reality and observable types of individual, family or group behavior. In the spirit of this approach and in conjunction with the stated purpose, the phenomenon of reproductive behavior is first thematically positioned in the network of different ecosystemic factors of influence, setting apart for a more detailed analysis four disciplinary frameworks with four corresponding approaches to the reproductive behavior. These are: demographic approach (questions of dynamics of population growth and decline, structure of reproductively active population etc.), sociological approach (questions of conditions of social life and the norms which define the preferred lifestyles), psychological (motivation for parenthood, individual attitude towards one's sexuality and the role of sex) and the feminist approach to the subject. The paper indicates that the borders between these disciplinary frameworks are often fluid and their overlaps numerous, also that particular links are being created between them.
Summary / Abstract: This paper discusses how the Serbian news media reflect gender inequality in the society through gender structure on the production level. The paper is based on Serbian journalistic community’s research done from June 2010 to July 2012 and a secondary analysis of the other published research in the media field. Although findings cannot be generalized, they certainly point to the main problems and mechanisms within the media organizations. From the owners’ and managers’ positions through the editorial boards, gender structure, choice of topics and interlocutors, to the manner of reporting on specific topics of public interest, media perpetuate a picture of gender roles. This applies in particular to the role of women whose media images often do not correspond with their roles and emancipation in real life. Thus, the social role of women in their communities is limited to patriarchal patterns, and their contribution to the community is minimized.
Keywords: journalistic professionalism, gender differences, media representation, feminist media studies
Women, Peace, Security: Agenda for the 21st Century
Summary / Abstract: The text considers a recent trend in creating public policies that should influence the relation between establishment and/or constant threat to international peace and security on the one hand and the position and rights of women on the other. Beginning of the work on this issue is often symbolically related to the adoption of United Nation’s Security Council Resolution 1325 – Women, Peace, Security. With its adoption on October 31, 2000, the UN Security Council, for the first time in history, formally recognized the distinct forms of violence perpetrated against women in armed conflicts and the unique role that women can play in peace making and peace building. Although UN mandates had dealt, in the second half of the twentieth century, with some of the issues related to women, peace and security, it was UNSCR 1325 that placed the specific needs and different roles of women in the discourse of the largest security systems in the world. The essay highlights the major events that led to this unprecedented historical development in the struggle for gender equality.
Protofeminism in Colonial Mexico: Juana Inés de la Cruz
Summary / Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the 17th century Mexican poet Juana Inés de la Cruz as a writer whose works are relevant to contemporary feminist literary history. Due to the ecclectic nature and scope of her intellectual activities, the paper deals with only a handful of her works, with a special focus on her polemical letters, „Spiritual Self-defence” and „Letter to Sister Filotea de la Cruz”. The author uses the term „protofeminism” for Juana Inés de la Cruz’ views on the rights and dignity of women, in order to make a distinction between fully developed feminism of the 19th century onwards and more isolated examples of the preceding calls towards women's rights.
Keywords: Juana Inés de la Cruz, protofeminism, Mexico, baroque, women's monasticism
A Posibility of l’Ecriture Feminine in Music: Examples from Serbia
Summary / Abstract: My goal in this paper is to explore the possibility of applying the concept of female writing to classical music. Namely, because many female composers are active in Serbia, the question of the existence of female musical writing is often raised among the experts and concert-goers. Starting from the idea that female writing is meant to help women free themselves from patriarchal values by transforming the traditional (male) language, and by writing through their body, I try to explore the ways in which music can do the same. By analyzing the Serbian music world and the ideologies that influence it – among the most powerful being the ideas of universality and autonomy of music – I map the context in which Serbian female composers create their music. Namely, governed by the modernistic ideas that the musical piece is an „autonomous universe”, governed by its own laws, and not connected to the society in which it exists, Serbian world of music is shown to be strongly influenced by the academic discourse, conservative, and focused on preserving traditional values. Thus, one can observe a strong need that both composers and music critiques have – to deny the importance of the body of the person who creates music, i.e. their gender, sexual preference, race, etc. In this sense, most composers claim that their gender does not influence their music, and most female artists insist that the fact that they are women is not in any way important for their work. The analyses of a number of musical pieces written by female composers is aimed at revealing some ways in which gender is treated in classical music, and at showing how musical canon can be subverted.
Keywords:l'écriture féminine in music, male writing, feminism, gender, universality, autonomy
Cyberfeminist Strategies: Presence of Feminism on Social Networks in Serbia
Summary / Abstract: From the Industrial Revolution to the present day, technological development affects the general social development, the conditions in which women and men live, and social theory and practice. Starting from the significant pharmaceutical breakthroughs, via the regular household appliances, to the emergence of new means of communication and transportation, technological advances are changing the ways in which people think, what they do, how and with whom they are interact, when and how to conduct business, friends, and even sex. Dissemination of knowledge and information, thanks to technology, has also become faster, more accessible, but also more dangerous (for example, when it comes to cyber crime and other types of misuse of information or public and private data). New technology, especially the emergence of the World Wide Web, and then social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, have had a dramatic impact on social theory, and in particular the practice of feminisms. This paper will deal with the definition, theoretical framework and practice of cyberfeminsm, its influence on contemporary feminist theory and practice, as well as the relationship of feminism and modern technology. Also, this article will briefly touch on cyberfeminist practice in Serbia, especially those that contribute to the spread of feminist ideas to a wider audience and users.
Keywords: feminism, cyborg, cyberfeminism, social networks
Summary / Abstract: The paper presents an analysis of the proceedings in honour of prof. emerita Svenka Savić, Discourse and Discourses (Zbornik u čast Svenki Savić: diskurs i diskursi, ed. Vera Vasić, 2010). Various contributions to the volume are interpreted in terms of the notional aspects reflecting the epistemology and ontology of contemporary linguistics and discourse analysis. Pertaining to the fields of general linguistics, study of language acquisition, sociolinguistics of gender, and critical discourse analysis, the proceedings in honour of Svenka Savić also reflect the extensive, interdisciplinary range of her own professional interests in linguistics, as well as her fruitful influence in the development of the discipline, that she regarded as „the modern study of language”.